Glossary of Terms

ANOXAL DYSTROPHY
A spinal deformity causing nerve degeneration and loss of coordination. Found in Ibizan Hounds, this condition is hereditary.
ACVO (American College of Veterinary Ophthalmology) EYE CHECKS
Denotes that all eye checks done on breeding stock are conducted by a veterinarian with Board Certification in veterinary opthomology.
CARDIAC FUNCTION TESTED
Refers to veterinary screening of all breeding stock for any inherited or congenital cardiac problems.
CATARACTS
An opacity of the lens of the eye or its capsule. Congenital and/or juvenile cataracts are seen in many breeds, often recognized at six to eight weeks.
CHONDRODYSPLASIA
Congenital dwarfism seen mostly in Alaskan Malamutes.
CODE OF ETHICS
Many individual breed clubs and all breed clubs have established guidelines or rules of ethical conduct for their members. While these will vary in content from club to club and breed to breed, a Code of Ethics, in general, is a pledge to breed only healthy dogs of sound mind and body which meet the AKC standard for the breed. Other factors are often included.
COLLIE EYE DISEASE (Collie Ectasia Syndrome)
A congenital eye defect found in both the Smooth and Rough coated Collie which results in impaired vision or complete blindness. This condition differs from P.R.A.
COPPER STORAGE DISEASE or COPPER TOXICOSIS
A condition where the liver retains higher than normal levels of copper. This causes sensitivity to certain medications and/or susceptability to other secondary diseases.
DEAFNESS CHECK or BAER (Brainstorm Auditory Evoked Response) HEARING TESTED
A procedure developed by Purdue University where the patient is tranquilized and placed on an electric monitor which measures the olfactory nerve's response to various audio stimuli. Commonly used by Dalmatian and Border Collie breeders.
DERMOID SINUS
This condition, seen in Rhodesian Ridgebacks, refers to a threadlike tube or funnel of skin which anchors the outside hide to the vertebrae or dura mater, occurring in the midline of the back from the top of the head to the root of the tail. The lesion may occur anywhere along the length of the back, most commonly in the neck region followed by the area from the tip of the ridge to the tail root. More than one sinus can be present. The condition is evident at birth but can be missed until the puppy is several weeks old.
ENTROPION
Refers to the "rolling in" of the lid margin of the top and/or the bottom eye lids. The condition can be unilateral or bilateral.
FACTOR 10 DEFICIENCY
A blood clotting disorder seen in many breeds.
GLOBOID CELL LEUKODYSTROPHY
A disease of the white blood cells.
HEMOLYTIC ANEMIA
A hereditary and progressive unresponsive blood disease found in Basenjis. Apparently the result of some defect in the red blood cells, diagnosis is reached through a laboratory test.
HIP DYSPLASIA
Refers to abnormally developed hips due to laxity (looseness) of the hip joint caused by ligament relaxation, shallow hip socket, and/or diminished muscle mass. The malformed hips often cause pain, arthritis, lameness, reluctance to move, and poor gait. While the cause is not completely understood, it is considered to be influenced by heredity.
HYPOTHYROIDISM
see Thyroid Dysfunction.
LEGG-PERTHES DISEASE
A condition of the long bones, usually in the rear legs, causing deformity and lameness. Commonly seen in smaller dogs.
LUXATING PATELLAS
Refers to a patella (knee cap) that fails to stay in place, slipping out of the groove, causing a weakness in the joint. This condition is hereditary and sometimes requires surgery.
OFA (Orthopedic Foundation for Animals, Inc.) CERTIFIED
A non-profit organization which examines and evaluates x-rays of dogs submitted by their owners. Its Dysplasia Control Registry certifies those dogs with no radiographic evidence of hip dysplasia. Certification is also available for stifles, elbows, and patella luxation. Recently, OFA started certifying cardiac function and thyroid function.
PORTOCAVAL SHUNT & PORTOSYSTEMIC SHUNT
An inherited liver anomaly found in several breeds and with familial tendencies in others. Though tests are available to determine if a dog is affected, the condition is debilitating and often fatal.
PPM (Persistent Pupillary Membrane)
A strandlike defect in the pupillary area of the eye. Common in many breeds but severe in some.
PRA (Progressive Retinal Atrophy)
A slow-developing hereditary blindness recognized in many breeds, often showing up late in life.
PROTEIN LOSING ENTEROPATHY
An autoimmune disorder causing the body to shed or "spill" protein from the blood into the intestinal tract, resulting in a serious depletion in the system. It is seen in many breeds but has familial tendencies in Soft Coated Wheaten Terriers.
PROTEIN LOSING NEPHROPATHY
An autoimmune disorder causing the body to shed or "spill" protein from the blood into the urinary tract, resulting in a serious depletion in the system. It is seen in many breeds but has familial tendencies in Soft Coated Wheaten Terriers.
RENAL DYSPLASIA
An inherited disorder found in Lhasa Apsos and Shih-tzus, usually as puppies, where the kidney's microscopic filtration mechanisms are malformed. The percentage of malformation and clinical signs can vary from dog to dog and result in mild to severe kidney compensation, even to death.
SCOTTY CRAMP
A neurological condition causing spasms or "cramping", usually in the hind quarters. The symptoms manifest themselves in puppies. Noted in other breeds, this condition is named for the breed in which it was initially discovered.
SEBACIOUS ADENITIS
A serious genetic skin condition found mostly in Poodles causing hairloss and secondary staph infections.
SPINAL DYSRAPHISM
A congenital malformation of the spinal cord or vertebrae and most often occurring as a genetic dysfunction of Weimaraners. In its most severe form, it can be recognized in puppies under one week of age by an inability to separately control the rear legs, resulting in a "logging pair" gait. In milder cases, seen in older puppies, there is a frequent "bunny hop" gait in the hindquarters.
STORAGE DISEASE (Infantile Gangliosidosis - GM1)
A condition, similar to human Tay- Sachs disease, found in Portuguese Water Dogs.
SUBVALVULAR AORTIC STENOSIS
A hereditary congenital heart valve defect found in Golden Retrievers resulting in a weakened heart and eventual congestive heart failure.
TEMPERAMENT TESTED
A temperament test performed on puppies around seven weeks of age. The puppy is put through a series of exercises enabling the tester and breeder to evaluate the puppy's temperament strengths and weaknesses.
THYROID DYSFUNCTION
The most common thyroid dysfunction in dogs is hypothyroidism. However, the condition can be caused by one or more of a number problems within the thyroid gland. Tests to determine the status of thyroid function, if and where it has failed, assist the owner in determining the health of the thyroid gland. Though not proven to be directly inherited, thyroid dysfunction has familial tendencies and can lead to other secondary hormonal dysfunctions.
VonWILLEBRANDS DISEASE
Refers to a hereditary defect in the clotting mechanism resulting in a decreased blood clotting ability and an increased tendency to hemorrhage. It is caused by a deficiency of blood clotting factor VIII and can be detected through a specific blood test.